Journal of Innovation Management (Journal)

Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial workPublication Peer-review


In Europe, the creative industries (CIs) are experiencing growth rates well above the average of the EU’s total economic growth. However, a lack of consensus regarding how these industries work impedes the development of effective policy. In our research, we suggest a process approach to characterize the CIs. This characterization is more flexible in comparison to existing definitions. This process model can be used to easily identify job functions that are important for the development of innovative and creative products or services. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with key players in the CIs in the Netherlands. After analysis of these interviews, a process model was developed that consists of the following six steps: (1) problem analysis, (2) concept generation, (3) provisional design, (4) final design, (5) production/execution, and (6) product introduction. This model was supplemented with job functions for each step of the process. For future research, the model should be further developed to provide a greater differentiating effect between the CIs and other industries. However, the model can be very useful for characterizing the CIs in a manner that is more adaptable to the ever-changing nature of these industries.
Type of journalJournal


  • creative industries
  • creative process
  • job functions
  • characterization