Fuzzy quantitative attack tree analysis



Attack trees are important for security, as they help to identify weaknesses and vulnerabilities in a system. Quantitative attack tree analysis supports a number security metrics, which formulate important KPIs such as the shortest, most likely and cheapest attacks.

A key bottleneck in quantitative analysis is that the values are usually not known exactly, due to insufficient data and/or lack of knowledge. Fuzzy logic is a prominent framework to handle such uncertain values, with applications in numerous domains. While several studies proposed fuzzy approaches to attack tree analysis, none of them provided a firm definition of fuzzy metric values or generic algorithms for computation of fuzzy metrics.

In this work, we define a generic formulation for fuzzy metric values that applies to most quantitative metrics. The resulting metric value is a fuzzy number obtained by following Zadeh's extension principle, obtained when we equip the basis attack steps, i.e., the leaves of the attack trees, with fuzzy numbers. In addition, we prove a modular decomposition theorem that yields a bottom-up algorithm to efficiently calculate the top fuzzy metric value.
Date made available23 Jan 2024

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