We fabricated Josephson junctions (JJs) between the d-wave superconductor (SC) YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -x (YBCO) and the s-wave SC Nb (ds-JJs) on graphoepitaxially buffered MgO substrates, studied ds-JJs at temperatures down to 30 mK and employed these JJs in π-loops. Current-voltage characteristics of ds-JJs oriented along the  axis of YBCO exhibited up to a factor of 200 higher critical current densities than ds-JJs oriented along the  axis of YBCO. The critical current I c and the I c R n product of -oriented 3 μm wide ds-JJs are ∼70 μA and ∼200 μV, respectively, at 4.2 K. Rectangular arrays of up to 40 000 π-loops based on such ds-JJs were investigated using a low temperature scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope. We observed ordering of spontaneously generated half integer magnetic flux quanta in the π-loops correlated with minute spurious background magnetic fields, as well as with configurations and mutual coupling of the π-loops. We manipulated the magnetic states of the π-loops by the local application of magnetic fields using nearby planar coils. This paper paves the way for the use of π-loops in computations that are based on annealing processes.
- High-temperature superconductors
- Josephson junctions
- quantum computing
- scanning probe microscopy
- superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)