2D Dark-Count-Rate Modeling of PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in a TCAD Environment

Tihomir Knežević, Lis K. Nanver, Tomislav Suligoj

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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    Abstract

    PureB silicon photodiodes have nm-shallow p+n junctions with which photons/electrons with penetration-depths of a few nanometer can be detected. PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) were fabricated and analysed by 2D numerical modeling as an extension to TCAD software. The very shallow p+-anode has high perimeter curvature that enhances the electric field. In SPADs, noise is quantified by the dark count rate (DCR) that is a measure for the number of false counts triggered by unwanted processes in the non-illuminated device. Just like for desired events, the probability a dark count increases with increasing electric field and the perimeter conditions are critical. In this work, the DCR was studied by two 2D methods of analysis: the “quasi-2D” (Q-2D) method where vertical 1D cross-sections were assumed for calculating the electron/hole avalanche-probabilities, and the “ionization-integral 2D” (II-2D) method where cross sections were placed where the maximum ionization-integrals were calculated. The Q-2D method gave satisfactory results in structures where the peripheral regions had a small contribution to the DCR, such as in devices with conventional deepjunction guard rings (GRs). Otherwise, the II-2D method proved to be much more precise. The results show that the DCR simulation methods are useful for optimizing the compromise between fill-factor and p-/n-doping profile design in SPAD devices. For the experimentally investigated PureB SPADs, excellent agreement of the measured and simulated DCR was achieved. This shows that although an implicit GR is attractively compact, the very shallow pn-junction gives a risk of having such a low breakdown voltage at the perimeter that the DCR of the device may be negatively impacted.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationPhysics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI
    Subtitle of host publicationSPIE OPTO, 27 January - 1 February 2018, San Francisco, California, United States
    EditorsBernd Witzigmann , Marek Osiński , Yasuhiko Arakawa
    Place of PublicationBellingham, WA
    PublisherSPIE
    Number of pages10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2018
    EventSPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2018 - The Moscone Center, San Francisco, United States
    Duration: 28 Jan 20182 Feb 2018

    Publication series

    NameProceedings of SPIE
    PublisherSPIE
    Volume10526
    ISSN (Print)0277-786X
    ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X

    Conference

    ConferenceSPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2018
    Abbreviated titleOPTO
    CountryUnited States
    CitySan Francisco
    Period28/01/182/02/18

    Fingerprint

    avalanche diodes
    photons
    ionization
    electric fields
    rings
    cross sections
    p-n junctions
    electrical faults
    avalanches
    photodiodes
    anodes
    penetration
    curvature
    computer programs
    silicon
    profiles
    electrons
    simulation

    Keywords

    • photodiode
    • single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs)
    • detectors
    • silicon
    • pure boron
    • guard rings

    Cite this

    Knežević, T., Nanver, L. K., & Suligoj, T. (2018). 2D Dark-Count-Rate Modeling of PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in a TCAD Environment. In B. Witzigmann , M. Osiński , & Y. Arakawa (Eds.), Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI: SPIE OPTO, 27 January - 1 February 2018, San Francisco, California, United States [105261K] (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 10526). Bellingham, WA: SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290757
    Knežević, Tihomir ; Nanver, Lis K. ; Suligoj, Tomislav. / 2D Dark-Count-Rate Modeling of PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in a TCAD Environment. Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI: SPIE OPTO, 27 January - 1 February 2018, San Francisco, California, United States. editor / Bernd Witzigmann ; Marek Osiński ; Yasuhiko Arakawa. Bellingham, WA : SPIE, 2018. (Proceedings of SPIE).
    @inproceedings{64c5d634dd6b463181928e189e089271,
    title = "2D Dark-Count-Rate Modeling of PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in a TCAD Environment",
    abstract = "PureB silicon photodiodes have nm-shallow p+n junctions with which photons/electrons with penetration-depths of a few nanometer can be detected. PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) were fabricated and analysed by 2D numerical modeling as an extension to TCAD software. The very shallow p+-anode has high perimeter curvature that enhances the electric field. In SPADs, noise is quantified by the dark count rate (DCR) that is a measure for the number of false counts triggered by unwanted processes in the non-illuminated device. Just like for desired events, the probability a dark count increases with increasing electric field and the perimeter conditions are critical. In this work, the DCR was studied by two 2D methods of analysis: the “quasi-2D” (Q-2D) method where vertical 1D cross-sections were assumed for calculating the electron/hole avalanche-probabilities, and the “ionization-integral 2D” (II-2D) method where cross sections were placed where the maximum ionization-integrals were calculated. The Q-2D method gave satisfactory results in structures where the peripheral regions had a small contribution to the DCR, such as in devices with conventional deepjunction guard rings (GRs). Otherwise, the II-2D method proved to be much more precise. The results show that the DCR simulation methods are useful for optimizing the compromise between fill-factor and p-/n-doping profile design in SPAD devices. For the experimentally investigated PureB SPADs, excellent agreement of the measured and simulated DCR was achieved. This shows that although an implicit GR is attractively compact, the very shallow pn-junction gives a risk of having such a low breakdown voltage at the perimeter that the DCR of the device may be negatively impacted.",
    keywords = "photodiode, single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), detectors, silicon, pure boron, guard rings",
    author = "Tihomir Knežević and Nanver, {Lis K.} and Tomislav Suligoj",
    year = "2018",
    month = "2",
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    doi = "10.1117/12.2290757",
    language = "English",
    series = "Proceedings of SPIE",
    publisher = "SPIE",
    editor = "{Witzigmann }, {Bernd } and {Osiński }, {Marek } and Yasuhiko Arakawa",
    booktitle = "Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI",
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    }

    Knežević, T, Nanver, LK & Suligoj, T 2018, 2D Dark-Count-Rate Modeling of PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in a TCAD Environment. in B Witzigmann , M Osiński & Y Arakawa (eds), Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI: SPIE OPTO, 27 January - 1 February 2018, San Francisco, California, United States., 105261K, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 10526, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, SPIE Optoelectronics and Photonic Materials and Devices Conference, OPTO 2018, San Francisco, United States, 28/01/18. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290757

    2D Dark-Count-Rate Modeling of PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in a TCAD Environment. / Knežević, Tihomir; Nanver, Lis K.; Suligoj, Tomislav.

    Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI: SPIE OPTO, 27 January - 1 February 2018, San Francisco, California, United States. ed. / Bernd Witzigmann ; Marek Osiński ; Yasuhiko Arakawa. Bellingham, WA : SPIE, 2018. 105261K (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 10526).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

    TY - GEN

    T1 - 2D Dark-Count-Rate Modeling of PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in a TCAD Environment

    AU - Knežević, Tihomir

    AU - Nanver, Lis K.

    AU - Suligoj, Tomislav

    PY - 2018/2/23

    Y1 - 2018/2/23

    N2 - PureB silicon photodiodes have nm-shallow p+n junctions with which photons/electrons with penetration-depths of a few nanometer can be detected. PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) were fabricated and analysed by 2D numerical modeling as an extension to TCAD software. The very shallow p+-anode has high perimeter curvature that enhances the electric field. In SPADs, noise is quantified by the dark count rate (DCR) that is a measure for the number of false counts triggered by unwanted processes in the non-illuminated device. Just like for desired events, the probability a dark count increases with increasing electric field and the perimeter conditions are critical. In this work, the DCR was studied by two 2D methods of analysis: the “quasi-2D” (Q-2D) method where vertical 1D cross-sections were assumed for calculating the electron/hole avalanche-probabilities, and the “ionization-integral 2D” (II-2D) method where cross sections were placed where the maximum ionization-integrals were calculated. The Q-2D method gave satisfactory results in structures where the peripheral regions had a small contribution to the DCR, such as in devices with conventional deepjunction guard rings (GRs). Otherwise, the II-2D method proved to be much more precise. The results show that the DCR simulation methods are useful for optimizing the compromise between fill-factor and p-/n-doping profile design in SPAD devices. For the experimentally investigated PureB SPADs, excellent agreement of the measured and simulated DCR was achieved. This shows that although an implicit GR is attractively compact, the very shallow pn-junction gives a risk of having such a low breakdown voltage at the perimeter that the DCR of the device may be negatively impacted.

    AB - PureB silicon photodiodes have nm-shallow p+n junctions with which photons/electrons with penetration-depths of a few nanometer can be detected. PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) were fabricated and analysed by 2D numerical modeling as an extension to TCAD software. The very shallow p+-anode has high perimeter curvature that enhances the electric field. In SPADs, noise is quantified by the dark count rate (DCR) that is a measure for the number of false counts triggered by unwanted processes in the non-illuminated device. Just like for desired events, the probability a dark count increases with increasing electric field and the perimeter conditions are critical. In this work, the DCR was studied by two 2D methods of analysis: the “quasi-2D” (Q-2D) method where vertical 1D cross-sections were assumed for calculating the electron/hole avalanche-probabilities, and the “ionization-integral 2D” (II-2D) method where cross sections were placed where the maximum ionization-integrals were calculated. The Q-2D method gave satisfactory results in structures where the peripheral regions had a small contribution to the DCR, such as in devices with conventional deepjunction guard rings (GRs). Otherwise, the II-2D method proved to be much more precise. The results show that the DCR simulation methods are useful for optimizing the compromise between fill-factor and p-/n-doping profile design in SPAD devices. For the experimentally investigated PureB SPADs, excellent agreement of the measured and simulated DCR was achieved. This shows that although an implicit GR is attractively compact, the very shallow pn-junction gives a risk of having such a low breakdown voltage at the perimeter that the DCR of the device may be negatively impacted.

    KW - photodiode

    KW - single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs)

    KW - detectors

    KW - silicon

    KW - pure boron

    KW - guard rings

    U2 - 10.1117/12.2290757

    DO - 10.1117/12.2290757

    M3 - Conference contribution

    T3 - Proceedings of SPIE

    BT - Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI

    A2 - Witzigmann , Bernd

    A2 - Osiński , Marek

    A2 - Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    PB - SPIE

    CY - Bellingham, WA

    ER -

    Knežević T, Nanver LK, Suligoj T. 2D Dark-Count-Rate Modeling of PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in a TCAD Environment. In Witzigmann B, Osiński M, Arakawa Y, editors, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI: SPIE OPTO, 27 January - 1 February 2018, San Francisco, California, United States. Bellingham, WA: SPIE. 2018. 105261K. (Proceedings of SPIE). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290757