2D modelling of clad geometry and resulting thermal cycles during laser cladding

Wei Ya, B. Pathiraj, Shaojie Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

A 2D thermal model of laser cladding process based on mass and energy balance is built incorporating the powder efficiency and solved with the finite element software COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS® v4.4. Powder efficiency was used as one of the input parameters. Powder efficiency was determined with weight measurements before and after laser cladding on thin DIN 2393 steel plates. Powder efficiency was also calculated from the clad area measured with binary image processing technique applied on cross section micrograph. The powder efficiency obtained from these two methods is in good agreement. The changes in powder efficiency with cladding process conditions were analysed in detail. The effect of input energy on the powder efficiency and dilution were correlated. The powder efficiency increases with energy input to a maximum value, beyond which the increase is marginal. The dilution continues to increase within the tested effective energy levels. Two methods were used to validate predictions of the thermal model. The positions of the melt depth and depth of the HAZ are measured from optical micrographs and from the hardness profiles. The depths were computed by tracing the melting temperature and the Ac3 temperature of the substrate material against the isotherms generated in the numerical simulations. The agreements in general were good. Thermocouples were inserted in the substrate materials at different locations and depths to record the temperature changes during laser cladding of 11 overlapped clad tracks. Measured and simulated temperature cycles with time agree within 5% of error. The developed powder efficiency based model is able to predict accurately the clad geometry and thermal cycles during the laser cladding process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-232
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of materials processing technology
Volume230
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Laser cladding
Powders
Geometry
Dilution
Hot Temperature
Binary images
Steel
Weighing
Substrates
Thermocouples
Energy balance
Temperature
Electron energy levels
Isotherms
Melting point
Image processing
Hardness

Keywords

  • METIS-317507
  • IR-101097

Cite this

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title = "2D modelling of clad geometry and resulting thermal cycles during laser cladding",
abstract = "A 2D thermal model of laser cladding process based on mass and energy balance is built incorporating the powder efficiency and solved with the finite element software COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS{\circledR} v4.4. Powder efficiency was used as one of the input parameters. Powder efficiency was determined with weight measurements before and after laser cladding on thin DIN 2393 steel plates. Powder efficiency was also calculated from the clad area measured with binary image processing technique applied on cross section micrograph. The powder efficiency obtained from these two methods is in good agreement. The changes in powder efficiency with cladding process conditions were analysed in detail. The effect of input energy on the powder efficiency and dilution were correlated. The powder efficiency increases with energy input to a maximum value, beyond which the increase is marginal. The dilution continues to increase within the tested effective energy levels. Two methods were used to validate predictions of the thermal model. The positions of the melt depth and depth of the HAZ are measured from optical micrographs and from the hardness profiles. The depths were computed by tracing the melting temperature and the Ac3 temperature of the substrate material against the isotherms generated in the numerical simulations. The agreements in general were good. Thermocouples were inserted in the substrate materials at different locations and depths to record the temperature changes during laser cladding of 11 overlapped clad tracks. Measured and simulated temperature cycles with time agree within 5{\%} of error. The developed powder efficiency based model is able to predict accurately the clad geometry and thermal cycles during the laser cladding process.",
keywords = "METIS-317507, IR-101097",
author = "Wei Ya and B. Pathiraj and Shaojie Liu",
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pages = "217--232",
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2D modelling of clad geometry and resulting thermal cycles during laser cladding. / Ya, Wei; Pathiraj, B.; Liu, Shaojie.

In: Journal of materials processing technology, Vol. 230, 2016, p. 217-232.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - 2D modelling of clad geometry and resulting thermal cycles during laser cladding

AU - Ya, Wei

AU - Pathiraj, B.

AU - Liu, Shaojie

PY - 2016

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N2 - A 2D thermal model of laser cladding process based on mass and energy balance is built incorporating the powder efficiency and solved with the finite element software COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS® v4.4. Powder efficiency was used as one of the input parameters. Powder efficiency was determined with weight measurements before and after laser cladding on thin DIN 2393 steel plates. Powder efficiency was also calculated from the clad area measured with binary image processing technique applied on cross section micrograph. The powder efficiency obtained from these two methods is in good agreement. The changes in powder efficiency with cladding process conditions were analysed in detail. The effect of input energy on the powder efficiency and dilution were correlated. The powder efficiency increases with energy input to a maximum value, beyond which the increase is marginal. The dilution continues to increase within the tested effective energy levels. Two methods were used to validate predictions of the thermal model. The positions of the melt depth and depth of the HAZ are measured from optical micrographs and from the hardness profiles. The depths were computed by tracing the melting temperature and the Ac3 temperature of the substrate material against the isotherms generated in the numerical simulations. The agreements in general were good. Thermocouples were inserted in the substrate materials at different locations and depths to record the temperature changes during laser cladding of 11 overlapped clad tracks. Measured and simulated temperature cycles with time agree within 5% of error. The developed powder efficiency based model is able to predict accurately the clad geometry and thermal cycles during the laser cladding process.

AB - A 2D thermal model of laser cladding process based on mass and energy balance is built incorporating the powder efficiency and solved with the finite element software COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS® v4.4. Powder efficiency was used as one of the input parameters. Powder efficiency was determined with weight measurements before and after laser cladding on thin DIN 2393 steel plates. Powder efficiency was also calculated from the clad area measured with binary image processing technique applied on cross section micrograph. The powder efficiency obtained from these two methods is in good agreement. The changes in powder efficiency with cladding process conditions were analysed in detail. The effect of input energy on the powder efficiency and dilution were correlated. The powder efficiency increases with energy input to a maximum value, beyond which the increase is marginal. The dilution continues to increase within the tested effective energy levels. Two methods were used to validate predictions of the thermal model. The positions of the melt depth and depth of the HAZ are measured from optical micrographs and from the hardness profiles. The depths were computed by tracing the melting temperature and the Ac3 temperature of the substrate material against the isotherms generated in the numerical simulations. The agreements in general were good. Thermocouples were inserted in the substrate materials at different locations and depths to record the temperature changes during laser cladding of 11 overlapped clad tracks. Measured and simulated temperature cycles with time agree within 5% of error. The developed powder efficiency based model is able to predict accurately the clad geometry and thermal cycles during the laser cladding process.

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