(2x1)-(1x1) Phase Transition on Ge(001): Dimer Breakup and Surface Roughening

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Using low energy electron microscopy, we have investigated the (2×1)-(1×1) phase transition occurring above 925 K on Ge(001). Dimer breakup has been identified as the physical origin of this transition. A quantitative description of the dimer concentration during the transition involves configuration entropy of random monomers within the dimer matrix. The dimer formation energy amounts to 1.2±0.3  eV. Dimer breakup promotes reversible surface disorder by step proliferation and irreversible surface roughening above 1130 K.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116102-1-116102-4
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2003


  • IR-61189
  • METIS-214533


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