3-D Strain Imaging of the Carotid Bifurcation: Methods and in-Human Feasibility

Stein Fekkes*, Hendrik H.G. Hansen, Jan Menssen, Anne E.C.M. Saris, Chris L. de Korte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Atherosclerotic plaque development in the carotid artery bifurcation elevates the risk for stroke, which is often initiated by plaque rupture. The risk-to-rupture of a plaque is related to its composition. Two-dimensional non-invasive carotid elastography studies have found a correlation between wall strain and plaque composition. This study introduces a technique to perform non-invasive volumetric elastography in vivo. Three-dimensional ultrasound data of carotid artery bifurcations were acquired in four asymptomatic individuals using an electrocardiogram-triggered multislice acquisition device that scanned over a length of 35 mm (350 slices) using a linear transducer (L11-3, f c = 9 MHz). For each slice, three-angle ultrasound plane wave data were acquired and beamformed. A correction for breathing-induced motion was applied to spatially align the slices, enabling 3-D cross-correlation-based compound displacement, distensibility and strain estimation. Distensibility values matched with previously published values, while the corresponding volumetric principal strain maps revealed locally elevated compressive and tensile strains. This study presents for the first time 3-D elastography of carotid arteries in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1675-1690
Number of pages16
JournalUltrasound in medicine and biology
Issue number7
Early online date18 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-D principal strain
  • Carotid bifurcation
  • Displacement compounding
  • Multislice 3-D
  • Ultrafast plane wave ultrasound

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