Urbanization and the trend towards complex infrastructure development challenges the traditional two-dimensional (2D) cadastral representations used in conventional land administration. Three-dimensional (3D) representations are argued to serve as the future basis upon which to spatially define rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in these environments. In Delhi, the capital city of India, where horizontal expansion via new settlements in peri-urban areas, and vertical expansion by densification of city infrastructure, are both prevalent, the need to manage this increasingly complex 3D infrastructure environment presents a great challenge for land administration and management agencies. This paper explores both the current and potential future application of 3D representation in Delhi, with respect to land use planning, development and management. A cross-cutting thematic case study analysis is undertaken: policy drivers, legal frameworks, organizational aspects, and technical standards are considered. For each aspect a separate analytical approach is used. Based on the results, it is concluded that current practices related to 3D representation are somewhat immature and not adequate for capturing the future vertical growth of Delhi. This could lead to legal and physical boundary inconsistencies and irregularities, and dispute cases. However, by learning from international developments and standards-based approaches, agencies have the potential to enhance and support processes in their respective land administration systems. To realize this potential, internal and external policies, institutional settings and, technical and financial arrangements need to be reformed. In the short term it is recommended to focus on raising awareness for the widespread adoption of 3D representations in relevant agencies in Delhi.
Ghawana, T., Bennett, R., Zevenbergen, J. A., Khandelwal, P., & Rahman, S. (Accepted/In press). 3D Cadastres in India: Examining the status and potential for land administration and management in Delhi. Land use policy, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104389