3D Printed Soft Robotic Actuator With Embedded Strain Sensing For Position Estimation

Gerjan Wolterink, Stijn Kolkman, Gijs Krijnen

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This work shows the development and characterization of a fully 3D printed pneumatic soft robotic actuator with embedded strain gauges to estimate the bending angle of the actuator. The actuator was printed in one go using a multi material Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) printer. By taking the difference of the reading of two integrated strain gauges, printed using carbon doped TPU, a strong linear relation (R2=0.97) between the bending angle and sensor output is achieved.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2022 IEEE SENSORS - Conference Proceedings
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-6654-8464-0
ISBN (Print)978-1-6654-8465-7
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event2022 IEEE Sensors Conference, SENSORS 2022 - Dallas, United States
Duration: 30 Oct 20222 Nov 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of IEEE Sensors
ISSN (Print)1930-0395
ISSN (Electronic)2168-9229


Conference2022 IEEE Sensors Conference, SENSORS 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • 3D Printing
  • Conductive TPU
  • Pneunet
  • Sensorized
  • Soft actuators
  • Strain sensor
  • 2023 OA procedure


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