4D CAD Based Method for Supporting Coordination of Urban Subsurface Utility Projects

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    Coordinators of inner city utility construction works face increasing difficulty in managing their projects due to tight physical restrictions, strict deadlines and growing stakeholder fragmentation. This paper therefore presents a 4D CAD based coordination method that supports project plan scoping, formalizing and synchronizing. We developed and implemented the method by conducting ethnographic action research in four project cases. In these projects, we observed that 4D-models generated with the method allowed practitioners to identify project interfaces and conflicts, to identify schedule shortcomings and to evaluate delays. By introducing the method and reporting on its empirical evaluation we extend 4D CAD's domain of applicability with mid and small-sized utility projects and address a need for 4D implementation studies.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)66-77
    JournalAutomation in construction
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016



    • utility projects
    • coordination
    • 4D CAD
    • scheduling
    • multi-stakeholder

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