An NPN-based temperature sensor with digital output transistors has been realized in a 65-nm CMOS process. It achieves a batch-calibrated inaccuracy of ±0.5 ◦C (3¾) and a trimmed inaccuracy of ±0.2 ◦C (3¾) over the temperature range from −70 ◦C to 125 ◦C. This performance is obtained by the use of NPN transistors as sensing elements, the use of dynamic techniques, i.e. correlated double sampling and dynamic element matching, and a single room-temperature trim. The sensor draws 8.3 μA from a 1.2-V supply and occupies an area of 0.1 mm2.
- CMOS analog integrated circuits
- smart sensors
- sigma-delta modulation
- Temperature sensors