For the first time, a miniaturized hydrodynamic chromatography chip system has been developed and tested on separation of fluorescent nanospheres and macromolecules. The device can be applied to size characterization of synthetic polymers, biopolymers, and particles, as an attractive alternative to the classical separation methods such as size exclusion chromatography or field-flow fractionation. The main advantages are fast analysis, high separation efficiency, negligible solvent consumption, and easy temperature control. The prototype chip contains a rectangular flat separation channel with dimensions of 1 μm deep and 1000 μm wide, integrated with a 300-pL injector on a silicon substrate. The silicon microtechnology provides precisely defined geometry, high rigidity, and compatibility with organic solvents or high temperature. All flows are pressure driven, and a specific injection system is employed to avoid excessive sample loading times, demonstrating an alternative way of lab-on-a-chip design. Separations obtained in 3 min show the high performance of the device and are also the first demonstration of flat channel hydrodynamic chromatography in practice.