A CMOS Switched Transconductor Mixer

Eric A.M. Klumperink, S.M. Louwsma, Gerhardus J.M. Wienk, Bram Nauta

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    139 Citations (Scopus)
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    A new CMOS active mixer topology can operate at low supply voltages by the use of switches exclusively connected to the supply voltages. Such switches require less voltage headroom and avoid gate-oxide reliability problems. Mixing is achieved by exploiting two transconductors with cross-coupled outputs, which are alternatingly activated by the switches. For ideal switching, the operation is equivalent to a conventional active mixer. This paper analyzes the performance of the switched transconductor mixer, in comparison with the conventional mixer, demonstrating competitive performance at a lower supply voltage. Moreover, the new mixer has a fundamental noise benefit, as noise produced by the switch-transistors and LO-port is common mode noise, which is rejected at the differential output. An experimental prototype with 12-dB conversion gain was designed and realized in standard 0.18-μm CMOS to operate at only a 1-V supply. Experimental results show satisfactory mixer performance up to 4 GHz and confirm the fundamental noise benefit.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1231-1240
    Number of pages10
    JournalIEEE journal of solid-state circuits
    Issue number8
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2004


    • Dielectric Breakdown
    • Low voltage
    • active mixers
    • Reliability
    • Noise
    • nonlinear circuits
    • communication circuits
    • integrated circuit noise
    • intermodulation distortion
    • demodulation
    • low-noise design
    • transmitter
    • linear transconductance
    • down-conversion mixers
    • microwave integrated circuits
    • microwave mixers
    • receiver
    • white noise
    • EWI-14465
    • METIS-220549
    • IR-48800
    • CMOS analog integrated circuits
    • 1 noise
    • Active circuits
    • Frequency conversion
    • Modulation


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