A comparison of households' energy balance in residential smart grid pilots in the Netherlands

Cihan Gercek*, Wouter Schram, Ioannis Lampropoulos, Wilfried van Sark, Angèle Reinders

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)
    75 Downloads (Pure)


    This paper presents an analysis that frames the impact of various smart grid technologies, with an objective to provide a transparent framework for residential smart grid demonstration projects based on predefined and clearly formulated key performance indicators. The analysis inspects measured energy data of 217 households from three smart grid pilot projects in the Netherlands and a public dataset with smart meter data from 70 households as a reference. The datasets were evaluated for one year and compared to provide insights on technologies and other differences based on seven key performance indicators, giving a comprehensive overview: monthly electricity consumption (100-600 kWh) and production (4-200 kWh); annually imported (3.1-4.5 MWh) and exported (0.2-1 MWh) electricity; residual load; peak of imported (4.8-6.8 kW) and exported (0.3-2.2 kW) electricity; import simultaneity (20-70.5%); feed in simultaneity (75-89%); self-sufficiency (18-20%); and self-consumption (50-70%). It was found that the electrification of heating systems in buildings by using heat pumps leads to an increase of annual electricity consumption and peak loads of approximately 30% compared to the average Dutch households without heat pumps. Moreover, these peaks have a high degree of simultaneity. To increase both the self-sufficiency and self-consumption of households, further investigations will be required to optimize smart grid systems.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number2993
    JournalApplied Sciences
    Issue number15
    Publication statusPublished - 25 Jul 2019


    • Consumption patterns
    • Energy system analysis
    • Flexibility
    • Heat pumps
    • Load duration curve
    • Photovoltaic
    • Self-consumption
    • Self-sufficiency
    • Smart grids


    Dive into the research topics of 'A comparison of households' energy balance in residential smart grid pilots in the Netherlands'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this