A composite X-minute city cycling accessibility metric and its role in assessing spatial and socioeconomic inequalities – A case study in Utrecht, the Netherlands

Elizabeth Knap, Mehmet Baran Ulak*, Karst T. Geurs, Alex Mulders, Sander Van der drift

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
128 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The 15 min city (or “X-minute city” in general) concept aims to give people access to all essential services and daily needs (e.g., healthcare, education, etc.) within X minutes of active transportation, to improve transport equity, sustainability, and traffic safety. To date, there is a lack of methods and tools to assess to what degree cities currently, or after implementing policies, comply with the X-minute city concept. This research aims to develop a methodology for quantifying the X-minute city through a metric (CSx) that was developed based on an accessibility framework and tested for cycling mode in the Utrecht region in the Netherlands as a study area. Travel data from the Netherlands mobility panel were analysed to determine input characteristics of the metric, such as the weight of destination types. Standardized gravity-based 2-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) accessibility scores for all destination types were weighted and aggregated into a composite metric that shows relative scores as an X-minute city. The results of the analysis show that 100% of the population in the Utrecht region has access to at least one destination for all 9 destination types within 15 min, whereas this number reduces to 94% within a 10 min cycling threshold; indicating the status of Utrecht as a cycling city with cycling-friendly infrastructure. Furthermore, low-income groups do not have lower cycling accessibility to the services in the 15 min city in the study area, reinforcing the notion that cycling can be an effective solution to reduce transport inequalities. The developed metric can be used to assess cities on their way towards becoming X-minute city, prioritise neighbourhoods to develop, set quantifiable goals, and evaluate planning scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100043
JournalJournal of Urban Mobility
Volume3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023

Keywords

  • UT-Gold-D

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