A Conceptual Model for Participants and Activities in Citizen Science Projects

Rob Lemmens*, Gilles Falquet, Chrisa Tsinaraki, Friederike Klan, Sven Schade, Lucy Bastin, Jaume Piera, Vyron Antoniou, Jakub Trojan, Frank Ostermann, Luigi Ceccaroni

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


Interest in the formal representation of citizen science comes from portals, platforms, and catalogues of citizen science projects; scientists using citizen science data for their research; and funding agencies and governments interested in the impact of citizen science initiatives. Having a common understanding and representation of citizen science projects, their participants, and their outcomes is key to enabling seamless knowledge and data sharing. In this chapter, we provide a conceptual model comprised of the core citizen science concepts with which projects and data can be described in a standardised manner, focusing on the description of the participants and their activities. The conceptual model is the outcome of a working group from the COST Action CA15212 Citizen Science to Promote Creativity, Scientific Literacy, and Innovation throughout Europe, established to improve data standardisation and interoperability in citizen science activities. It utilises past models and contributes to current standardisation efforts, such as the Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR) Common Conceptual Model and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Its design is intended to fulfil the needs of different stakeholders, as illustrated by several case studies which demonstrate the model’s applicability.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Science of Citizen Science
EditorsKatrin Vohland, Anne Land-Zandstra, Luigi Ceccaroni, Rob Lemmens, Josep Perelló, Marisa Ponti, Roeland Samson, Katherin Wagenknecht
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-58278-4
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-58277-7
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2021


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