During the last decennia many protein-related electrical phenomena have been studied and applied in a variety of measuring systems, from simple metal electrodes with adsorbed proteins to sophisticated systems with lipid bilayers. Many of the investigations concern the monitoring of immuno reactions. The basis underlying electrical effects of the observed phenomena are the protein modulated dielectric constant, conductivity, electrical potential, ion permeability and ion mobility. In this paper special attention is paid to the capacitive measurements with EIS systems as well as impedance and potential measurements with FET devices. The Donnan theory is treated and applied to the static ImmunoFET operation, explaining the relatively small effects which have been reported. Finally, an alternative approach is described in which the ImmunoFET is applied in a dynamic way, to circumvent the drawbacks of the static measurements.
- protein measurement