A cryogenic imaging X-ray spectrometer for XEUS read out by frequency-division SQUID multiplexers

Piet A.J. De Korte*, John J. Van Baar, Norman H.R. Baars, Frank E. Bakker, Wouter M.Bergmann Tiest, Marcel P. Bruijn, Alexander Germeau, Henk F.C. Hoevers, Mikko Kiviranta, Eric Krouwer, Jan Der Van Kuur, Marco P. Lubbers, Wim A. Mels, Marcel L. Ridder, Heikki Seppae, Remco J. Wiegerink

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleAcademicpeer-review

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    A micro-calorimeter array with superconducting transition-edge sensors read out by a SQUID-based frequency-domain multiplexer is under development for the X-ray imaging spectrometer on board ESA's X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy (XEUS) mission. The XEUS requirements are 2 and 5 eV FWHM energy resolution for 2 and 7 keV X-rays, respectively. An array of 32 × 32 pixels with 250 micron square pixels is envisaged. SRON and MESA+ have developed 5 × 5 imaging micro-calorimeter prototype arrays along a bulk micromachining and a surface micromachining route. The present state of array design and development with emphasis on pixel-to-pixel performance measurements of thermal and I-V characteristics, sensor noise and energy resolution are presented. SRON and VTT are developing frequency-domain multiplexing with SQUID current amplifiers to read out the 32 × 32 array. The concept for the frequency division multiplexing read-out will be presented and its performance characteristics discussed. Recent results of sensor operation under AC-bias (500 kHz) are presented.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number22
    Pages (from-to)167-176
    Number of pages10
    JournalProceedings of SPIE - the international society for optical engineering
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2004
    EventSPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, 2004 - Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Duration: 22 Jun 200423 Jun 2004


    • Cryogenic micro-calorimeters
    • Frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM)
    • Imaging X-ray spectrometer
    • SQUIDs
    • Transition-edge sensors (TES)
    • X-ray astronomy
    • XEUS


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