A descriptive model of information problem solving while using internet

Saskia Brand-Gruwel, Iwan Wopereis, Amber Walraven

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

236 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses of the thinking-aloud protocols revealed that the IPS-process consists of five constituent skills: (a) defining information problem, (b) searching information, (c) scanning information, (d) processing information, and (e) organizing and presenting information. Further, the studies revealed that regulation skills prove to be crucial for the on-going IPS-process. The IPS-I-model depicts the constituent skills, regulation skills, and important conditional skills. The model gives an initial impetus for designing IPS-instruction.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1207-1217
Number of pages10
JournalComputers & education
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Media in education
  • Learning strategies
  • Lifelong learning


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