A hybrid process combining ion exchange resin and bipolar membrane electrodialysis for reverse osmosis remineralization

A. A.M. Abusultan, J. A. Wood, T. Sainio, A. J.B. Kemperman*, W.G.J. van der Meer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

A new reverse osmosis (RO) permeate remineralization process combining ion exchange resin and bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) was developed. Its feasibility for hardness ions recovery and RO permeate remineralization was investigated. The effect of several operation conditions on the efficiency of the combined remineralization process was studied. Highly efficient cation exchange resin loading was achieved at a low flow rate and low feed solution concentration. The recovered calcium purity and yield considerably improved under gradient elution methods in comparison with commonly applied conventional isocratic elution methods using the same eluent quantity. The purity of the produced acid and base using BMED dropped noticeably with increasing feed NaCl concentration, presumably related to decreased permselectivity of the ion-exchange membranes. The drop in the purity of the calcium recovered when eluting the cation exchange resin with BMED-produced HCl in comparison with commercially available acid at 50 % yield was shown not to affect the remineralization process, where a dilution factor could be applied. This study confirmed the technical feasibility of the developed process for RO permeate remineralization. However, its application can be limited by the water source characteristics, the energy-intensive bipolar membrane process, and applied operational conditions, where more investigation is still needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117209
JournalDesalination
Volume573
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2024

Keywords

  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Electrodialysis
  • Ion exchange membrane
  • Ion exchange resin
  • Remineralization
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Bipolar membrane

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