A local constitutive model for anisotropic granular materials is introduced and applied to isobaric (homogeneous) axial-symmetric deformation. The simplified model (in the coordinate system of the bi-axial box) involves only scalar values for hydrostatic and shear stresses, for the volumetric and shear strains as well as for the new ingredient, the anisotropy modulus. The non-linear constitutive evolution equations that relate stress and anisotropy to strain are inspired by observations from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. For the sake of simplicity, parameters like the bulk and shear modulus are set to constants, while the shear stress ratio and the anisotropy evolve with different rates to their critical state limit values when shear deformations become large. When applied to isobaric deformation in the bi-axial geometry, the model shows ratcheting under cyclic loading. Fast and slow evolution of the anisotropy modulus with strain. Lead to dilatancy and contractancy, respectively. Furthermore, anisotropy acts such that it works “against” the strain/stress, e.g., a compressive strain builds up anisotropy that creates additional stress acting against further compression.
- Constitutive modeling with anisotropy – Biaxial box – Ratcheting – Isobaric cyclic loading