A Low-Voltage Mobility-Based Frequency Reference for Crystal-Less ULP Radios

Fabio Sebastiano, Lucien J. Breems, Kofi A.A. Makinwa, Salvatore Dargo, Salvatore Drago, Domine M.W. Leenaerts, Bram Nauta

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    73 Citations (Scopus)
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    The design of a 100 kHz frequency reference based on the electron mobility in a MOS transistor is presented. The proposed low-voltage low-power circuit requires no off-chip components, making it suitable for application in wireless sensor networks (WSN). After a single-point calibration, the spread of its output frequency is less than 1.1% (3 ) over the temperature range from -22 C to 85 C. Fabricated in a baseline 65 nm CMOS technology, the frequency reference circuit occupies 0.11 mm蚠 and draws 34 A from a 1.2 V supply at room temperature.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2002-2009
    Number of pages8
    JournalIEEE journal of solid-state circuits
    Issue number7
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2009


    • Relaxation oscillators
    • Wireless sensor networks
    • Low voltage
    • CMOS analog integrated circuits
    • Crystal-less clock
    • Ultra-low power
    • Charge carrier mobility


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