A methodology for evaluating tooth wear monitoring using timed automata modelling

Peter Wetselaar, Frank Lobbezoo, Pepijn de Jong, Umarah Choudry, Jasper van Rooijen, Rom Langerak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
90 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives: Tooth wear is a multifactorial condition leading to the loss of dental hard tissues. A counselling/monitoring protocol is of importance in order to keep that loss as limited as possible. Since many factors are involved and a time span of decades is included, research to disentangle all these processes in patients is difficult. Instead, a modelling technique was used that is able to deal with time, costs and probabilistic and stochastic information. The aim was to shed light on the question: does a yearly or a once-in-five-years counselling/monitoring protocol yield better outcome measures?

Methods: A so-called timed automata model was adopted, analysed with the tool
UPPAAL. To our knowledge, this is the first time that formal modelling is applied
in dentistry. In this article, a UPPAAL model for the evaluation of tooth wear is

Results: Using the UPPAAL model, it was calculated that with a yearly counselling/monitoring protocol the severity of tooth wear at age 74, the total costs per personand the number of restorative treatments were less, and the number of so-called“good years” was higher.

Conclusions: With the use of the UPPAAL model, it may be concluded that a yearly counselling/monitoring protocol can yield better outcome measures.

Clinical Significance: Regarding dentistry in general and tooth wear in particular, with the use of a timed automata model in UPPAAL, actual research questions can be answered, factors of influence in a multifactorial condition like tooth wear can be clarified, and future research topics can be determined.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-360
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Oral Rehabilitation
Issue number3
Early online date13 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Monitoring
  • Timed automata model
  • Tooth wear
  • Evaluation


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