We have designed a microfluidic microreactor chip for electrochemical conversion of analytes, containing a palladium reference electrode and platinum working and counter electrodes. The counter electrode is placed in a separate side-channel on chip to prevent unwanted side-products appearing in the measured spectrograms. Using this chip, cyclic voltammograms are measured in volumes of 9.6 nL. Furthermore the conversion efficiency of ferricyanide is characterized using UV/vis-spectroscopy. We have obtained an on-line conversion of 97% using a flow rate of 1 mu L/min. We have used the microreactor chip to study the electrochemical metabolism pathway of amodiaquine using electrochemistry (EC)-liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS). We have compared our results with measurements obtained with commercially available electrochemical flow-through cells. Using our chip it was possible to obtain similar results. Therefore, we have fabricated an electrochemical cell on-chip which is used successfully in EC-UV/vis and EC-LC-MS experiments.
- online electrochemistry
- chromatography/mass spectrometry
- redox reaction
- Electrospray mass spectrometry
- ed onlin