A model for real-time bus holding subject to vehicle capacity limits

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

80 Downloads (Pure)


Two distinct directions of research have emerged for the vehicle holding problem: (i) single variable optimization approaches that determine the holding time of a single vehicle when it is about to depart from a bus stop; and, (ii) multivariable, periodic optimization approaches that use rather complex mathematical programs to determine the holding times of all running vehicles. Compre-hensive mathematical programs that consider multiple decision variables cannot be easily solved in real time, and are typically reserved for periodic control in longer time horizons. For this reason, this study focuses on single variable optimization approaches which determine the holding time of
a vehicle when it arrives at a control point stop. Up to now, single variable optimization methods resort to rather simple, rule-based control logics. One of them is the one-headway-based logic which determines the holding time of a bus based on its headway with its preceding bus without addressing other implications, such as overcrowding. To rectify this, we introduce a new nonlinear
model for the single variable bus holding problem that considers the passenger demand and vehicle capacity limits. Then, we reformulate this problem to an easier-to-solve program with the use of slack variables and we prove that it can be solved to global optimality. A simulation-based investigation of the performance of our model against the performance of classic control logics that do not consider vehicle capacity limits is finally performed in bus line 302 in Singapore.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020
Event99th Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual Meeting 2020 - Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, United States
Duration: 12 Jan 202016 Jan 2020
Conference number: 99


Conference99th Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual Meeting 2020
Abbreviated titleTRB 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
Internet address


Dive into the research topics of 'A model for real-time bus holding subject to vehicle capacity limits'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this