A Multimodality Myocardial Perfusion Phantom: Initial Quantitative Imaging Results

Marije E. Kamphuis, Henny Kuipers, H. Remco Liefers, Jan van Es, Frank F.J. Simonis, Marcel J.W. Greuter*, Cornelis H. Slump, Riemer H.J.A. Slart

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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This proof-of-concept study explores the multimodal application of a dedicated cardiac flow phantom for ground truth contrast measurements in dynamic myocardial perfusion imaging with CT, PET/CT, and MRI. A 3D-printed cardiac flow phantom and flow circuit mimics the shape of the left ventricular cavity (LVC) and three myocardial regions. The regions are filled with tissue-mimicking materials and the flow circuit regulates and measures contrast flow through LVC and myocardial regions. Normal tissue perfusion and perfusion deficits were simulated. Phantom measurements in PET/CT, CT, and MRI were evaluated with clinically used hardware and software. The reference arterial input flow was 4.0 L/min and myocardial flow 80 mL/min, corresponding to myocardial blood flow (MBF) of 1.6 mL/g/min. The phantom demonstrated successful completion of all processes involved in quantitative, multimodal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) applications. Contrast kinetics in time intensity curves were in line with expectations for a mimicked perfusion deficit (38 s vs. 32 s in normal tissue). Derived MBF in PET/CT and CT led to under- and overestimation of reference flow of 0.9 mL/g/min and 4.5 mL/g/min, respectively. Simulated perfusion deficit (0.8 mL/g/min) in CT resulted in MBF of 2.8 mL/g/min. We successfully performed initial, quantitative perfusion measurements with a dedicated phantom setup utilizing clinical hardware and software. These results showcase the multimodal phantom’s potential.

Original languageEnglish
Article number436
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • Blood flow
  • CT
  • MRI
  • Multimodality
  • Myocardial
  • Perfusion
  • PET
  • Phantom imaging
  • Quantitative imaging


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