A new in vivo screening model for posterior spinal bone formation: comparison of ten calcium phosphate ceramic material treatments

C.E. Wilson, Clayton E. Wilson, Moyo C. Kruyt, Joost Dick de Bruijn, Clemens van Blitterswijk, F. Cumhur Oner, Abraham J. Verbout, Wouter J.A. Dhert

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This study presents a new screening model for evaluating the influence of multiple conditions on the initial process of bone formation in the posterior lumbar spine of a large animal. This model uses cages designed for placement on the decorticated transverse process of the goat lumbar spine. Five conduction channels per cage, each be defined by a different material treatment, are open to both the underlying bone and overlying soft tissue. The model was validated in ten adult Dutch milk goats, with each animal implanted with two cages containing a total of ten calcium phosphate material treatments according to a randomized complete block design. The ten calcium phosphate ceramic materials were created through a combination of material chemistry (BCP, TCP, HA), sintering temperature (low, medium, high), calcination and surface roughness treatments. To monitor the bone formation over time, fluorochrome markers were administered at 3, 5 and 7 weeks and the animals were sacrificed at 9 weeks after implantation. Bone formation in the conduction channels was investigated by histology and histomorphometry of non-decalcified sections using traditional light and epifluorescent microscopy. According to both observed and measured bone formation parameters, materials were ranked in order of increasing magnitude as follows: low sintering temperature BCP (rough and smooth)≈medium sintering temperature BCP≈TCP>calcined low sintering temperature HA>non-calcined low sintering temperature HA>high sintering temperature BCP (rough and smooth)>high sintering temperature HA (calcined and non-calcined). These results agree closely with those obtained in previous studies of osteoconduction and bioactivity of ceramics thereby validating the screening model presented in this study.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)302-314
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • Osteoconduction
  • Osteogenesis
  • METIS-229846
  • Animal model
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Bioactivity
  • IR-78552

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