A perspective on the control of FES-supported standing

Petrus H. Veltink, Nick Donaldson

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    This special section is about the control of electrical stimulators to restore standing functions to paraplegics. It addresses several important topics regarding the interactions of the intact central nervous systems (CNS) with the artificial control system. The topics are as follows: how paraplegics use their arms to help themselves stand up with functional electrical stimulation (FES); the user-driven artificial control of FESsupported standing up; a controller which is promising for the control of sitting down; the application of reinforcement machine learning for the controllers of standing up; arms-free standing with voluntary upper body balancing and artificially controlled ankle stiffness; and cognitive feedback in balancing. This Commentary introduces the papers in this section and relates them to earlier research.
    Original languageUndefined
    Pages (from-to)109-112
    Number of pages4
    JournalIEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1998


    • METIS-112288
    • IR-15413

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