Pervaporation is carried out primarily with homogeneous membranes. An improvement in permeation rate can be achieved by using asymmetric or composite membranes. In order to maintain a high selectivity, very dense top layers are needed. The formation of asymmetric pervaporation membranes will be discussed in terms of the model proposed by our group: formation of the top layer by gelation; formation of the porous sublayer by liquid-liquid phase separation followed by gelation of the concentrated polymer phase. To obtain very dense top layers the following factors are important: the ratio of nonsolvent inflow and solvent outflow, polymer concentration, location of the liquid-liquid demixing gap, and location of the gel region. Asymmetric membranes have been prepared by varying these factors, and the obtained membranes have been tested on ethanol/water mixtures.