A Review of Extrusion-Based 3D Printing for the Fabrication of Electro- and Biomechanical Sensors

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In this review paper, we focus on the 3D printing technologies that consist of the extruding of fluid material in lines to form structures for electro- and biomechanical applications. Our paper reviews various 3D print technologies, materials, sensing technologies and applications of extrusion-based 3D printing. We also discuss how to overcome some of the challenges with 3D printed sensors, such as the anisotropy of the conductors as well as the drift and nonlinearity of the materials.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12900-12912
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE sensors journal
Issue number11
Early online dateDec 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • 3D printed sensors
  • Additive manufacturing (AM)
  • Direct ink writing
  • Embedded sensing
  • Fabrication
  • Fiber encapsulation
  • Flexible strain sensors
  • Frequency division multiplexing
  • Fused deposition modelling (FDM)
  • Ink
  • Sensors
  • Three-dimensional displays
  • Three-dimensional printing
  • Writing

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