A review of laser engineered net shaping (LENS) build and process parameters of metallic parts

Mojtaba Izadi*, Aidin Farzaneh, Mazher Mohammed, Ian Gibson, Bernard Rolfe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of the laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process in an attempt to provide the reader with a deep understanding of the controllable and fixed build parameters of metallic parts. The authors discuss the effect and interplay between process parameters, including: laser power, scan speed and powder feed rate. Further, the authors show the interplay between process parameters is pivotal in achieving the desired microstructure, macrostructure, geometrical accuracy and mechanical properties. Design/methodology/approach: In this manuscript, the authors review current research examining the process inputs and their influences on the final product when manufacturing with the LENS process. The authors also discuss how these parameters relate to important build aspects such as melt-pool dimensions, the volume of porosity and geometry accuracy. Findings: The authors conclude that studies have greatly enriched the understanding of the LENS build process, however, much studies remains to be done. Importantly, the authors reveal that to date there are a number of detailed theoretical models that predict the end properties of deposition, however, much more study is necessary to allow for reasonable prediction of the build process for standard industrial parts, based on the synchronistic behavior of the input parameters. Originality/value: This paper intends to raise questions about the possible research areas that could potentially promote the effectiveness of this LENS technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1059-1078
Number of pages20
JournalRapid prototyping journal
Issue number6
Early online date27 Apr 2020
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2020


  • Input process parameters
  • LENS
  • Outputs


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