Oxidative stress is associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reactive oxygen species can modify lipids, DNA, RNA, and proteins in the brain. The products of their peroxidation and oxidation are readily detectable at incipient stages of disease. Based on these oxidation products, various biomarker-based strategies have been developed to identify oxidative stress levels in AD. Known oxidative stress-related biomarkers include lipid peroxidation products F2-isoprostanes, as well as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal which both conjugate to specific amino acids to modify proteins, and DNA or RNA oxidation products 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), respectively. The inducible enzyme heme oxygenase type 1 (HO-1) is found to be upregulated in response to oxidative stress-related events in the AD brain. While these global biomarkers for oxidative stress are associated with early-stage AD, they generally poorly differentiate from other neurodegenerative disorders that also coincide with oxidative stress. Redox proteomics approaches provided specificity of oxidative stress-associated biomarkers to AD pathology by the identification of oxidatively damaged pathology-specific proteins. In this review, we discuss the potential combined diagnostic value of these reported biomarkers in the context of AD and discuss eight oxidative stress-related mRNA biomarkers in AD that we newly identified using a transcriptomics approach. We review these genes in the context of their reported involvement in oxidative stress regulation and specificity for AD. Further research is warranted to establish the protein levels and their functionalities as well as the molecular mechanisms by which these potential biomarkers are involved in regulation of oxidative stress levels and their potential for determination of oxidative stress and disease status of AD patients.
|Number of pages||25|
|Journal||Journal of Alzheimer's Disease|
|Publication status||Published - 28 Sep 2021|
- Alzheimer's disease
- mild cognitive impairment
- oxidative stress