A review of public transport transfer coordination at the tactical planning phase

Tao Liu, Oded Cats*, Konstantinos Gkiotsalitis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
147 Downloads (Pure)


While transferring between public transport services has a negative impact on the level-of-service, it is an inevitable feature of public transport networks. Transfer coordination can help reduce passenger transfer waiting times and improve service connectivity. In this paper, we systematically review the literature on transfer coordination design in public transport systems. First, four solution approaches for solving the transfer coordination design problem (TCDP) are identified and reviewed in detail, namely heuristic rule-based, analytical modelling, mathematical programming, and simulation. We then identify and review three extensions of the TCDP, i.e., considering first or last train transfer optimization, integrating vehicle scheduling, and incorporating passenger demand assignment. Finally, following the synthesis of the literature, some promising future research directions are outlined. This paper provides comprehensive insights on how to better design coordinated transfers to provide a seamless travel experience and improve the service connectivity of public transport networks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103450
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


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