A Sensor-Based Feedback Device Stimulating Daily Life Upper Extremity Activity in Stroke Patients: A Feasibility Study

Anthonia J. Langerak, Gerrit Ruben Hendrik Regterschot, Marc Evers, Bert Jan F. van Beijnum, Carel G.M. Meskers, Ruud W. Selles, Gerard M. Ribbers, Johannes B.J. Bussmann*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and explore the efficacy of the Arm Activity Tracker (AAT). The AAT is a device based on wrist-worn accelerometers that provides visual and tactile feedback to stimulate daily life upper extremity (UE) activity in stroke patients. Methods: A randomised, crossover within-subject study was conducted in sub-acute stroke patients admitted to a rehabilitation centre. Feasibility encompassed (1) adherence: the dropout rate and the number of participants with insufficient AAT data collection; (2) acceptance: the technology acceptance model (range: 7–112) and (3) usability: the system usability scale (range: 0–100). A two-way ANOVA was used to estimate the difference between the baseline, intervention and control conditions for (1) paretic UE activity and (2) UE activity ratio. Results: Seventeen stroke patients were included. A 29% dropout rate was observed, and two participants had insufficient data collection. Participants who adhered to the study reported good acceptance (median (IQR): 94 (77–111)) and usability (median (IQR): 77.5 (75–78.5)-). We found small to medium effect sizes favouring the intervention condition for paretic UE activity (η2G = 0.07, p = 0.04) and ratio (η2G = 0.11, p = 0.22). Conclusion: Participants who adhered to the study showed good acceptance and usability of the AAT and increased paretic UE activity. Dropouts should be further evaluated, and a sufficiently powered trial should be performed to analyse efficacy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5868
JournalSensors
Volume23
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2023

Keywords

  • accelerometry
  • arm usage
  • daily life
  • feedback
  • rehabilitation
  • stroke
  • upper extremity

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