A survey of affective brain computer interfaces: principles, state-of-the-art, and challenges

C. Mühl, Brandan Allison, Antinus Nijholt, Guillaume Chanel

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    126 Citations (Scopus)
    195 Downloads (Pure)


    Affective states, moods and emotions, are an integral part of the human nature: they shape our thoughts, govern the behavior of the individual, and influence our interpersonal relationships. The last decades have seen a growing interest in the automatic detection of such states from voice, facial expression and physiological signals, primarily with the goal of enhancing human-computer interaction with an affective component. With the advent of brain-computer interface research, the idea of affective brain-computer interfaces (aBCI), enabling affect detection from brain signals, arose. In this article, we set out to survey the field of neurophysiology-based affect detection. We outline possible applications of aBCI in a general taxonomy of brain-computer interface approaches and introduce the core concepts of affect and their neurophysiological fundamentals. We show that there is a growing body of literature that evidences the capabilities, but also the limitations and challenges of affect detection from neurophysiological activity.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)66-84
    Number of pages19
    JournalBrain-Computer Interfaces
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 24 May 2014


    • fNIRS
    • EEG
    • Emotions
    • Affect
    • Brain-Computer Interfaces
    • IR-91451
    • METIS-305859
    • EWI-24554
    • moods


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