Energy losses occurring in a cylindrical sample of Gd-Ba-Cu-O, subjected to an external AC magnetic field were examined. The loss dependence on the amplitude of the magnetic induction exhibits two stages of flux penetration into the superconductor. Critical current densitities for both stages of penetration were examined and an explanation for such behaviour is proposed. Support for this point of view is obtained by measurements on pulverized sample material. All measurements were performed at a temperature of 4.2 K and in absence of a background field. Analysis of the data provides two critical current densities: an inter-granular critical current density at weak alternating magnetic fields and an intra-granular critical current density at higher magnetic fields. The intra-granular critical current density is at least two orders of magnitude larger than the inter-granular one.
Ciszek, M., Olejniczak, J., Trojnar, E., Zaleski, A. J., Klamut, J., Roovers, A. J. M., & van de Klundert, L. J. M. (1988). AC losses and critical current density of superconducting GdBa2Cu3O7−x. Physica C, 152(3), 247-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-4534(88)90135-9