Accuracy assessment of real-time kinematics (RTK) measurements on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for direct geo-referencing

Desta Ekaso*, F. Nex, N. Kerle

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Geospatial information acquired with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) provides valuable decision-making support in many different domains, and technological advances coincide with a demand for ever more sophisticated data products. One consequence is a research and development focus on more accurately referenced images and derivatives, which has long been a weakness especially of low to medium cost UAV systems equipped with relatively inexpensive inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. This research evaluates the positional accuracy of the real-time kinematics (RTK) GNSS on the DJI Matrice 600 Pro, one of the first available and widely used UAVs with potentially surveying-grade performance. Although a very high positional accuracy of the drone itself of 2 to 3 cm is claimed by DJI, the actual accuracy of the drone RTK for positioning the images and for using it for mapping purposes without additional ground control is not known. To begin with, the actual GNSS RTK position of reference center (the physical point on the antenna) on the drone is not indicated, and uncertainty regarding this also exists among the professional user community. In this study the reference center was determined through a set of experiments using the dual frequency static Leica GNSS with RTK capability. The RTK positioning data from the drone were then used for direct georeferencing, and its results were evaluated. Test flights were carried out over a 70 x 70 m area with an altitude of 40 m above the ground, with a ground sampling distance of 1.3 cm. Evaluated against ground control points, the planimetric accuracy of direct georeferencing for the photogrammetric product ranged between 30 and 60 cm. Analysis of direct georeferencing results showed a time delay of up to 0.28 seconds between the drone GNSS RTK and camera image acquisition affecting direct georeferencing results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalGeo-spatial information science
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 23 Jan 2020

Fingerprint

accuracy assessment
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)
GNSS
Kinematics
kinematics
Navigation
Satellites
ground control
Real time systems
positioning
Units of measurement
Image acquisition
Surveying
research and development
surveying
antenna
vehicle
time
Time delay
flight

Keywords

  • UAV
  • GNSS RTK
  • direct georeferencing
  • aerial triangulation
  • lever arm offset

Cite this

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title = "Accuracy assessment of real-time kinematics (RTK) measurements on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for direct geo-referencing",
abstract = "Geospatial information acquired with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) provides valuable decision-making support in many different domains, and technological advances coincide with a demand for ever more sophisticated data products. One consequence is a research and development focus on more accurately referenced images and derivatives, which has long been a weakness especially of low to medium cost UAV systems equipped with relatively inexpensive inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. This research evaluates the positional accuracy of the real-time kinematics (RTK) GNSS on the DJI Matrice 600 Pro, one of the first available and widely used UAVs with potentially surveying-grade performance. Although a very high positional accuracy of the drone itself of 2 to 3 cm is claimed by DJI, the actual accuracy of the drone RTK for positioning the images and for using it for mapping purposes without additional ground control is not known. To begin with, the actual GNSS RTK position of reference center (the physical point on the antenna) on the drone is not indicated, and uncertainty regarding this also exists among the professional user community. In this study the reference center was determined through a set of experiments using the dual frequency static Leica GNSS with RTK capability. The RTK positioning data from the drone were then used for direct georeferencing, and its results were evaluated. Test flights were carried out over a 70 x 70 m area with an altitude of 40 m above the ground, with a ground sampling distance of 1.3 cm. Evaluated against ground control points, the planimetric accuracy of direct georeferencing for the photogrammetric product ranged between 30 and 60 cm. Analysis of direct georeferencing results showed a time delay of up to 0.28 seconds between the drone GNSS RTK and camera image acquisition affecting direct georeferencing results.",
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doi = "10.1080/10095020.2019.1710437",
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Accuracy assessment of real-time kinematics (RTK) measurements on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for direct geo-referencing. / Ekaso, Desta; Nex, F.; Kerle, N.

In: Geo-spatial information science, 23.01.2020, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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N2 - Geospatial information acquired with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) provides valuable decision-making support in many different domains, and technological advances coincide with a demand for ever more sophisticated data products. One consequence is a research and development focus on more accurately referenced images and derivatives, which has long been a weakness especially of low to medium cost UAV systems equipped with relatively inexpensive inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. This research evaluates the positional accuracy of the real-time kinematics (RTK) GNSS on the DJI Matrice 600 Pro, one of the first available and widely used UAVs with potentially surveying-grade performance. Although a very high positional accuracy of the drone itself of 2 to 3 cm is claimed by DJI, the actual accuracy of the drone RTK for positioning the images and for using it for mapping purposes without additional ground control is not known. To begin with, the actual GNSS RTK position of reference center (the physical point on the antenna) on the drone is not indicated, and uncertainty regarding this also exists among the professional user community. In this study the reference center was determined through a set of experiments using the dual frequency static Leica GNSS with RTK capability. The RTK positioning data from the drone were then used for direct georeferencing, and its results were evaluated. Test flights were carried out over a 70 x 70 m area with an altitude of 40 m above the ground, with a ground sampling distance of 1.3 cm. Evaluated against ground control points, the planimetric accuracy of direct georeferencing for the photogrammetric product ranged between 30 and 60 cm. Analysis of direct georeferencing results showed a time delay of up to 0.28 seconds between the drone GNSS RTK and camera image acquisition affecting direct georeferencing results.

AB - Geospatial information acquired with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) provides valuable decision-making support in many different domains, and technological advances coincide with a demand for ever more sophisticated data products. One consequence is a research and development focus on more accurately referenced images and derivatives, which has long been a weakness especially of low to medium cost UAV systems equipped with relatively inexpensive inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. This research evaluates the positional accuracy of the real-time kinematics (RTK) GNSS on the DJI Matrice 600 Pro, one of the first available and widely used UAVs with potentially surveying-grade performance. Although a very high positional accuracy of the drone itself of 2 to 3 cm is claimed by DJI, the actual accuracy of the drone RTK for positioning the images and for using it for mapping purposes without additional ground control is not known. To begin with, the actual GNSS RTK position of reference center (the physical point on the antenna) on the drone is not indicated, and uncertainty regarding this also exists among the professional user community. In this study the reference center was determined through a set of experiments using the dual frequency static Leica GNSS with RTK capability. The RTK positioning data from the drone were then used for direct georeferencing, and its results were evaluated. Test flights were carried out over a 70 x 70 m area with an altitude of 40 m above the ground, with a ground sampling distance of 1.3 cm. Evaluated against ground control points, the planimetric accuracy of direct georeferencing for the photogrammetric product ranged between 30 and 60 cm. Analysis of direct georeferencing results showed a time delay of up to 0.28 seconds between the drone GNSS RTK and camera image acquisition affecting direct georeferencing results.

KW - UAV

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