Acid treatments of xylose have been performed in a methanol/water mixture to investigate the reaction pathways of xylose during bio-oil esterification. Xylose was mainly converted into methyl xylosides with negligible humins formed below 130°C. However, humins formation became significant with the dehydration of xylose to furfural and 2-(dimethoxymethyl)furan (DOF) at elevated temperatures. The conversion of xylose to methyl xylosides protected the C1 hydroxyl group of xylose, which stabilized xylose and suppressed the formation of sugar oligomers and polymerization reactions. In comparison, the conversion of furfural to DOF protected the carbonyl group of furfural. However, the protection did not remarkably suppress the polymerization of furfural at high temperatures because of the shift of the reaction equilibrium from DOF to furfural with a prolonged residence time. In addition, the acid treatment of furfural produced methyl levulinate in methanol and levulinic acid in water, which was catalyzed by formic acid.
- heterogeneous catalysis
- solvent effects