Active Load-Modulated Devices: A General PA Network Solution Identifying Highly Efficient Linearizer Systems

Anton N. Atanasov*, Mark S. Oude Alink, Frank E. van Vliet

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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We present a general analytical solution for the active input impedances of a given N-port impedance network as a function of the loading of its ports by either active or passive devices. To demonstrate the simplicity and ease of use of our approach we derive the input impedance equations of a conventional Balanced Power Amplifier (BPA) and the Load-Modulated Balanced Amplifier (LMBA) and the effects of mismatching the output load. We next focus on the properties of the hybrid coupler and present a general heuristic of categorization and identification of a missing topology. This missing topology is the load-modulated linearizer (LML), which utilizes active load-modulation to absorb individual out-of-band AM/AM intermodulation distortion (IMD) components at the output of a power amplifier. When properly designed, the LML requires only slightly more additional power as the IMD power it absorbs, making it very efficient. It retains the power conservation properties of the LMBA and achieves better linearization than an equivalent DPD system, at a very low power and complexity penalty. As the LML operates at the output of the nonlinear PA, it can independently target individual tones, which gives it a better bandwidth.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1353-1367
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques
Issue number2
Early online date9 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024


  • Active input impedance
  • Active load-modulation
  • 5G
  • Linearization techniques
  • load-modulated balanced amplifier
  • load-modulated linearizer


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