Additive manufacturing of 3D yttria-stabilized zirconia microarchitectures

J. P. Winczewski*, S. Zeiler*, S. Gabel, D. Maestre, B. Merle, J. G.E. Gardeniers, A. Susarrey Arce*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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The additive manufacturing (AM) of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) microarchitectures with sub-micrometer precision via two-photon lithography (TPL), utilizing custom photoresin containing zirconium and yttrium monomers is investigated. YSZ 3D microarchitectures can be formed at low temperatures (600 °C). The low-temperature phase stabilization of ZrO2 doped with Y2O3 demonstrates that doping ZrO2 with ≈ 10 mol% Y2O3 stabilizes the c-ZrO2 phase. The approach does not utilize YSZ particles as additives. Instead, the crystallization of the YSZ phase is initiated after printing, i.e., during thermal processing in the air at 600 °C – 1200 °C for one and two hours. The YSZ microarchitectures are characterized in detail. This includes understanding the role of defect chemistry, which has been overlooked in TPL-enabled micro-ceramics. Upon UV excitation, defect-related yellowish-green emission is observed from YSZ microarchitectures associated with intrinsic and extrinsic centers, correlated with the charge compensation due to Y3+ doping. The mechanical properties of the microarchitectures are assessed with manufactured micropillars. Micropillar compression yields the intrinsic mechanical strength of YSZ. The highest strength is observed for micropillars annealed at 600 °C, and this characteristic decreased with an increase in the annealing temperature. The deformation behavior gradually changes from ductile to brittle-like, correlating with the Hall–Petch strengthening mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112701
JournalMaterials and Design
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Micromechanics
  • Photoluminescence
  • Yttria-stabilized zirconia
  • UT-Gold-D


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