Adiabatic null passage for on-resonance magnetization transfer preparation

Shahrokh Abbasi-Rad*, David G. Norris

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Purpose: We propose a novel RF pulse providing an adiabatic null passage (ANP) for magnetization transfer preparation with improved insensitivity to (Formula presented.) and B0 inhomogeneities and mitigated direct saturation and T2 effects. Method: The phase modulation function of a 6-ms time-resampled frequency offset–corrected pulse was modified to achieve zero flip angle at the end of the pulse. The spectral response was simulated, and its insensitivity to B0 and (Formula presented.) was investigated and compared with a phase-inverted (1 (Formula presented.) 1- (Formula presented.) 2 (Formula presented.)) binomial pulse. The proposed pulse was implemented in a 2D-EPI pulse sequence to generate magnetization transfer (MT) contrast and MT ratio (MTR) maps. In vivo experiments were performed on 3 healthy participants with power-matched settings for ANP and the binomial pulse with the following parameters: 6-ms binomial pulse with a flip angle of 107° (shortest element) and pulse repetition period (PRP) of TRslice = 59 ms, three experiments with 6-ms ANP and constant MT used overdrive factor (OF)/PRP values of 1/TRslice, (Formula presented.) /2TRslice, and (Formula presented.) /3TRslice. Results: At gray matter (white matter) in vivo, the MTR decreased from 61% (64%) at OF = 1 to 38% (42%) applying ANP with an OF = (Formula presented.) and PRP = 3 TRslice, demonstrating the mitigation of T2/direct effect by 22% (22%). Bloch-McConnell simulations gave similar values. In vivo experiments showed significant improvement in the MTR values for areas with high B0 inhomogeneity. Conclusion: ANP pulse was shown to be advantageous over its binomial counterpart in providing MT contrast by mitigating the T2 effect and direct saturation of the liquid pool as well as reduced sensitivity to (Formula presented.) and B0 inhomogeneity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-148
Number of pages16
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number1
Early online date20 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • adiabatic null passage
  • direct saturation
  • magnetization transfer
  • T effect


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