Semiquantitative Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) on pure monophasic (ZrO2)0.83(YO1.5)0.17 was used to determine the chemical composition of the grain boundaries. Grain boundary enrichment with Y was observed with an enrichment factor of about 1.5. The difference in activation energy of the ionic conductivity of the grain boundary compared with the bulk can be explained by the Y segregation. When Bi2O3 is introduced into this material and second phase appears along the grain boundaries of the cubic main phase. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) on a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) shows an enrichment of bismuth at the grain boundaries of this second phase.
Winnubst, A. J. A., Kroot, P. J. M., & Burggraaf, A. J. (1983). AES/STEM grain boundary analysis of stabilized zirconia ceramics. Journal of physics and chemistry of solids, 44(10), 955-960. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3697(83)90144-0