The approach used to identify a compaction temperature in the laboratory, based on binder viscosity, provides a single compaction temperature whereas, on-site, a roller operates within a temperature window. The effect on the density and mechanical properties of rolling during a temperature window remains unclear. Consequently, asphalt concrete binder mixtures were compacted in different temperature windows in the laboratory using a Roller Sector Compactor, and the observed phenomena were then related to field study observations. The results show that while similar densities can be achieved in a broad range of temperature windows, other mechanical properties such as fracture energy may decline up to 30% if compacted outside the optimum temperature window. These results indicate that a compaction temperature window should form part of mix design and quality control. The paper proposes specifying a compaction window based on temperatures and the resulting mechanical properties rather than a single compaction temperature.
Bijleveld, F., Miller, S. R., de Bondt, A. H., & Doree, A. G. (2015). Aligning laboratory and field compaction practices for asphalt - the influence of compaction temperature on mechanical properties. International journal of pavement engineering, 17(8), 727-740. https://doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2015.1019494