All-printed cell counting chambers with on-chip sample preparation for point-of-care CD4 counting

Dorothee Wasserberg, Xichen Zhang, Christian Breukers, Bridgette J. Connell, Ellen Baeten, Dorine van den Blink, Èlia Solà Benet, Andries C. Bloem, Monique Nijhuis, Annemarie M.J. Wensing, Leon W.M.M. Terstappen, Markus Beck (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

We demonstrate the fabrication of fully printed microfluidic CD4 counting chips with complete on-chip sample preparation and their applicability as a CD4 counting assay using samples from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients. CD4 counting in low-income and resource-limited point-of-care settings is only practical and affordable, if disposable tests can be fabricated at very low cost and all manual sample preparation is avoided, while operation as well as quantification is fully automated and independent of the skills of the operator. Here, we show the successful use of (inkjet) printing methods both to fabricate microfluidic cell counting chambers with controlled heights, and to deposit hydrogel layers with embedded fluorophore-labeled antibodies for on-chip sample preparation and reagent storage. The maturation process of gelatin after deposition prevents antibody wash-off during blood inflow very well, while temperature-controlled dissolution of the matrix ensures complete antibody release for immunostaining after the inflow has stopped. The prevention of antibody wash-off together with the subsequent complete antibody release guarantees a homogeneous fluorescence background, making rapid and accurate CD4 counting possible. We show the successful application of our fully printed CD4 counting chips on samples from healthy donors as well as from HIV-infected patients and find an excellent agreement between results from our method and from the gold standard, flow cytometry, in both cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)659-668
Number of pages10
JournalBiosensors and bioelectronics
Volume117
Early online date3 Jul 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2018

Fingerprint

Point-of-Care Systems
Antibodies
Microfluidics
Tissue Donors
HIV
Printing
Flow cytometry
Fluorophores
Hydrogel
Gelatin
Hydrogels
Assays
Flow Cytometry
Dissolution
Blood
Deposits
Fluorescence
Costs and Cost Analysis
Fabrication
Temperature

Keywords

  • Immunofluorescent image cytometry
  • Inkjet printing
  • On-chip sample preparation
  • Point-of-care diagnostics
  • Printed microfluidics
  • HIV diagnostics

Cite this

Wasserberg, Dorothee ; Zhang, Xichen ; Breukers, Christian ; Connell, Bridgette J. ; Baeten, Ellen ; van den Blink, Dorine ; Solà Benet, Èlia ; Bloem, Andries C. ; Nijhuis, Monique ; Wensing, Annemarie M.J. ; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M. ; Beck, Markus. / All-printed cell counting chambers with on-chip sample preparation for point-of-care CD4 counting. In: Biosensors and bioelectronics. 2018 ; Vol. 117. pp. 659-668.
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Wasserberg, D, Zhang, X, Breukers, C, Connell, BJ, Baeten, E, van den Blink, D, Solà Benet, È, Bloem, AC, Nijhuis, M, Wensing, AMJ, Terstappen, LWMM & Beck, M 2018, 'All-printed cell counting chambers with on-chip sample preparation for point-of-care CD4 counting' Biosensors and bioelectronics, vol. 117, pp. 659-668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2018.07.002

All-printed cell counting chambers with on-chip sample preparation for point-of-care CD4 counting. / Wasserberg, Dorothee; Zhang, Xichen; Breukers, Christian; Connell, Bridgette J.; Baeten, Ellen; van den Blink, Dorine; Solà Benet, Èlia; Bloem, Andries C.; Nijhuis, Monique; Wensing, Annemarie M.J.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.; Beck, Markus (Corresponding Author).

In: Biosensors and bioelectronics, Vol. 117, 15.10.2018, p. 659-668.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Wasserberg, Dorothee

AU - Zhang, Xichen

AU - Breukers, Christian

AU - Connell, Bridgette J.

AU - Baeten, Ellen

AU - van den Blink, Dorine

AU - Solà Benet, Èlia

AU - Bloem, Andries C.

AU - Nijhuis, Monique

AU - Wensing, Annemarie M.J.

AU - Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

AU - Beck, Markus

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