Altering the Alkaline Metal Ions in Lepidocrocite-Type Layered Titanate for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Sajid Ali, Yanyan Zhang, Haoyuan Yang, Tingting Xu, Ye Wang*, Junyan Cui, Johan E. ten Elshof, Chongxin Shan, Haiyan Xu, Huiyu Yuan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
60 Downloads (Pure)


The relatively large ionic radius of the Na ion is one of the primary reasons for the slow diffusion of Na ions compared to that of Li ions in de/intercalation processes in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Interlayer expansion of intercalation hosts is one of the effective techniques for facilitating Na-ion diffusion. For most ionic layered compounds, interlayer expansion relies on intercalation of guest ions. It is important to investigate the role of these ions for material development of SIBs. In this study, alkali-metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) with different sizes were intercalated into lepidocrocite-type layered titanate by a simple ion-exchange technique to achieve interlayer modulation and those were then evaluated as anode materials for SIBs. By controlling the intercalated alkaline ion species, basal spacings of layered titanates (LTs) in the range of 0.68 to 0.85 nm were obtained. Interestingly, the largest interlayer spacing induced by the large size of Cs did not yield the best performance, while the Na intercalated layered titanate (Na-ILT) demonstrated a superior performance with a specific capacity of 153 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. We found that the phenomena can be explained by the high alkaline metal ion concentration and the efficient utilization of the active sites in Na-ILT. The detailed analysis indicates that large intercalating ions like Cs can hamper sodium-ion diffusion although the interlayer spacing is large. Our work suggests that adopting an appropriate interlayer ion species is key to developing highly efficient layered electrode materials for SIBs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5028-5037
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number4
Early online date20 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • Electrochemical performance
  • Interlayer distance
  • Interlayer ions
  • Layered titanate
  • Sodium-ion batteries
  • 2023 OA procedure


Dive into the research topics of 'Altering the Alkaline Metal Ions in Lepidocrocite-Type Layered Titanate for Sodium-Ion Batteries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this