Alternatives to Kronig-Kramers Transformation and Testing, and Estimation of Distributions

Bernard A. Boukamp, J. Ross macdonald

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Two alternatives to Kronig-Kramers analysis of small-signal ac immittance data are discussed and illustrated using both synthetic and experimental data. The first, a derivative method of approximating imaginary-part response from real-part data, is found to be too approximate in regions where the imaginary-part varies appreciably with frequency. The second, a distribution of relaxation-times fitting method, is shown to be valuable for testing whether a data set satisfies the Kronig-Kramers relations and so is associated with a system whose properties are time-invariant. It also is valuable for estimating real- or imaginary-part response from the other part, usually with small error. Unlike Kronig-Kramers analysis, the second method usually requires no extrapolation outside the range of the measured data. Finally, this discrete-function method also allows one to estimate the distribution of relaxation times or activation energies associated with a given set of frequency-response data. This application is described and illustrated for both synthetic and experimental data and is shown to yield good but somewhat approximate results for the estimation of continuous distributions. It is particularly valuable for identifying response regions arising from a continuous distribution and distinguishing them from those associated with discrete time-constant response.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)85-101
Number of pages16
JournalSolid state ionics
Issue number1/2
Publication statusPublished - 1994


  • METIS-106854
  • IR-12673

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