Ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces

Peter H. Veltink, Christian Liedtke, Ed Droog

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    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One sensor was mounted under the heel, the other under the forefoot, thus allowing normal gait with flexion of the foot during push-off. The measurement of the ground reaction force was evaluated in a healthy subject, who walked repeatedly over a force plate. The ground reaction force reconstructed from the instrumented shoe sensor signals corresponded well with the force plate measurements, the RMS difference between the moduli of both ground reaction force measurements was 18.4 /spl plusmn/ 3.1 N (2.3 /spl plusmn/ 0.4% of maximal vertical ground reaction force) over 12 evaluated trials. The RMS distance of the center of pressure estimates of both measurement systems after optimal alignment was 3.1 /spl plusmn/ 0.4 mm.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIEEE SMC 2004
    Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics: The Hague, Netherlands, 10-13 October 2004
    Place of PublicationDen Haag
    ISBN (Print)9780780385665
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2004
    EventIEEE International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, SMC 2004: Impacts of Emerging Cybernetics and Human-Machine Systems - The Hague, Netherlands
    Duration: 11 Oct 200413 Oct 2004


    ConferenceIEEE International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, SMC 2004
    Abbreviated titleSMC
    CityThe Hague


    • Gait analysis
    • Ground reaction force
    • Force sensors
    • Ambulatory sensing
    • Instrumented shoes


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