Amorphous to crystalline phase transition in carbon induced by intense femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulses

J. Gaudin, O. Peyrusse, J. Chalupsky, M. Toufarova, L. Vysin, V. Hajkova, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, A. Graf, M. Amati, L. Gregoratti, S. Hau-Riege, G. Hoffmann, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, R. London, S. Moeller, S. Schorb, M. Störmer, V. VorlicekH. Vu, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt

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33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present the results of an experiment where amorphous carbon undergoes a phase transition induced by femtosecond 830 eV x-ray free-electron laser pulses. The phase transition threshold fluence is found to be 282 ± 11 mJ/cm2. Atomic force microscopy, photoelectron microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy give experimental evidence for the phase transition in terms of a volume expansion, graphitization, and change of local order of the irradiated sample area. The interaction is modeled by an accurate time-dependent treatment of the ionization dynamics coupled to a two-temperature model. At the phase transition fluence threshold the free-electron density Ne is found to be at maximum 9 × 1020 cm−3 while the ion (atom) temperature is found to be 1050 K, e.g., above the crystallization activation temperature reported in the literature. This low ionization rate and high atom temperature suggest a thermally activated phase transition
Original languageEnglish
Article number024103
Pages (from-to)-
Number of pages7
JournalPhysical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics
Volume86
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • METIS-298227

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