An Arcadian apparatus: the introduction of the steam engine into the Dutch landscape

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In 1767 the wealthy Dutch banker John Hope purchased Groenendaal, a country estate situated south of Haarlem, east of the coastal dunes, and near a number of other estates owned by urban oligarchs who sought to overlay their commercial roots with the trappings of aristocratic gentility (fig. 1). Groenendaal covered seventy-four hectares and included a gardener's residence, coach houses, stables, greenhouses, and cold frames for exotic plants. Stylistically, the grounds of the estate were in transition from formal gardens to the naturalism of an English landscape park.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)251-276
Number of pages26
JournalTechnology and culture
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • METIS-223197
  • IR-102611

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