Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shaving, the payback effect might lead to a new peak in the grid. This payback phenomenon takes place every time a group of WHs under DLC is permitted to catch up. If not handled properly. This paper presents a novel real-time water flow control approach for domestic water heating systems aiming at decreasing the payback effect of DLC actions. We identify possible control strategies based on an analysis of the water system's thermal dynamics. We formulate the problem of optimal water flow control in terms of minimum WH payback demand and maximum user comfort satisfaction. User comfort is formalized by an integral energy characteristic. Simulations show that water flow control can significantly mitigate the DLC payback effect by reaching the fair compromise between energy savings and discomfort of an end-user.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Journal of engineering and applied sciences|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2014|