An efficient water flow control approach for water heaters in Direct Load Control

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shaving, the payback effect might lead to a new peak in the grid. This payback phenomenon takes place every time a group of WHs under DLC is permitted to catch up. If not handled properly. This paper presents a novel real-time water flow control approach for domestic water heating systems aiming at decreasing the payback effect of DLC actions. We identify possible control strategies based on an analysis of the water system's thermal dynamics. We formulate the problem of optimal water flow control in terms of minimum WH payback demand and maximum user comfort satisfaction. User comfort is formalized by an integral energy characteristic. Simulations show that water flow control can significantly mitigate the DLC payback effect by reaching the fair compromise between energy savings and discomfort of an end-user.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)2106-2120
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of engineering and applied sciences
Volume9
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014

Keywords

  • EWI-25627
  • IR-94301
  • METIS-309847

Cite this

@article{f47ea248454b4585a6b1ab76640fe9fb,
title = "An efficient water flow control approach for water heaters in Direct Load Control",
abstract = "Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shaving, the payback effect might lead to a new peak in the grid. This payback phenomenon takes place every time a group of WHs under DLC is permitted to catch up. If not handled properly. This paper presents a novel real-time water flow control approach for domestic water heating systems aiming at decreasing the payback effect of DLC actions. We identify possible control strategies based on an analysis of the water system's thermal dynamics. We formulate the problem of optimal water flow control in terms of minimum WH payback demand and maximum user comfort satisfaction. User comfort is formalized by an integral energy characteristic. Simulations show that water flow control can significantly mitigate the DLC payback effect by reaching the fair compromise between energy savings and discomfort of an end-user.",
keywords = "EWI-25627, IR-94301, METIS-309847",
author = "A. Belov and Nirvana Meratnia and {van der Zwaag}, B.J. and Havinga, {Paul J.M.}",
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year = "2014",
month = "11",
language = "Undefined",
volume = "9",
pages = "2106--2120",
journal = "Journal of engineering and applied sciences",
issn = "1819-6608",
publisher = "Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN)",
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}

An efficient water flow control approach for water heaters in Direct Load Control. / Belov, A.; Meratnia, Nirvana; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

In: Journal of engineering and applied sciences, Vol. 9, No. 11, 11.2014, p. 2106-2120.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - An efficient water flow control approach for water heaters in Direct Load Control

AU - Belov, A.

AU - Meratnia, Nirvana

AU - van der Zwaag, B.J.

AU - Havinga, Paul J.M.

N1 - eemcs-eprint-25627

PY - 2014/11

Y1 - 2014/11

N2 - Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shaving, the payback effect might lead to a new peak in the grid. This payback phenomenon takes place every time a group of WHs under DLC is permitted to catch up. If not handled properly. This paper presents a novel real-time water flow control approach for domestic water heating systems aiming at decreasing the payback effect of DLC actions. We identify possible control strategies based on an analysis of the water system's thermal dynamics. We formulate the problem of optimal water flow control in terms of minimum WH payback demand and maximum user comfort satisfaction. User comfort is formalized by an integral energy characteristic. Simulations show that water flow control can significantly mitigate the DLC payback effect by reaching the fair compromise between energy savings and discomfort of an end-user.

AB - Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shaving, the payback effect might lead to a new peak in the grid. This payback phenomenon takes place every time a group of WHs under DLC is permitted to catch up. If not handled properly. This paper presents a novel real-time water flow control approach for domestic water heating systems aiming at decreasing the payback effect of DLC actions. We identify possible control strategies based on an analysis of the water system's thermal dynamics. We formulate the problem of optimal water flow control in terms of minimum WH payback demand and maximum user comfort satisfaction. User comfort is formalized by an integral energy characteristic. Simulations show that water flow control can significantly mitigate the DLC payback effect by reaching the fair compromise between energy savings and discomfort of an end-user.

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KW - IR-94301

KW - METIS-309847

M3 - Article

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EP - 2120

JO - Journal of engineering and applied sciences

JF - Journal of engineering and applied sciences

SN - 1819-6608

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ER -